By Larry W. Mays (auth.), L. Mays (eds.)
There isn't any extra primary source than water. the foundation of all existence, water is speedy turning into a key factor in today’s global, in addition to a resource of clash. This interesting e-book, which units out some of the creative equipment wherein historical societies collected, transported and kept water, is a well timed e-book as overextraction and profligacy threaten the life of aquifers and watercourses that experience provided our wishes for millennia.
It offers an outline of the water applied sciences built via a couple of historical civilizations, from these of Mesopotamia and the Indus valley to later societies akin to the Mycenaeans, Minoans, Persians, and the traditional Egyptians. after all, no e-book on historic water applied sciences will be whole with out discussing the engineering feats of the Romans and Greeks, but in addition to protecting those key civilizations, it additionally examines how historic American societies from the Hohokams to the Mayans and Incas husbanded their water offers. This surprisingly wide-ranging textual content may perhaps provide today’s parched global a few recommendations to the upcoming hindrance in our water supply.
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Extra resources for Ancient Water Technologies
Lower Mesopotamia is an alluvial plain where irrigation-based agriculture developed. In this region, the Tigris and Euphrates flow with such a low gradient that they meander considerably and throw numerous side-branches. Like all meandering rivers they raise their own beds, so that they frequently flow above the level of the plain, their overflow tending to create permanent lakes and marshes, and they occasionally change their course (Roux, 1992). As far as 500 km from the Gulf, the average slope of the terrain is around 1:25,000.
Adad [god of weather] should withhold his rain, / and below, the flood should not come up from the abyss / . .. / let the fields diminish their yields . ’. Famine arose not only from the drought, but also because the soil turned no apt for agriculture due to salinization: ‘. . the black fields became white, / the broad plain was choked with salt . ’. Not succeeding with famine (due to Enki’s intervention), the gods decided a devastating flood that ‘tear up the mooring poles’ and ‘make the dykes overflow’.
To use this water for the plain, the passage through the south wall was redirected to the drainage area Doni Cayi. 14 shows three of the reservoirs (dams 4, 5 and 6) in the valley of Doni that are still evident of the ten reservoirs that were built (probably not all were built by the Urartians). Reservoirs created by dams 4 and 5 are still in use today for storing irrigation water for the Van plain (Garbrecht, 1980). This is certainly one of the ancient mega hydraulic projects that resulted from thoughtful planning and excellent workmanship evidenced by its 2,500 years of operation, still serving part of its original purpose.
Ancient Water Technologies by Larry W. Mays (auth.), L. Mays (eds.)