By Cindy Jenson-Elliott
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Additional resources for Ancient Chinese Dynasties
While he publicly advocated for Confucian restraint and respect, he displayed his power in a most un-Confucian way by treating lesser officials in his government harshly and subjecting them to unpredictable punishments and public beatings. Hongwu divided up governance of the empire by giving control of provincial regions to many of his thirty-six sons. Each was given total authority to govern his region, and those near the border were responsible for defense. Upon his death in 1398, several of Hongwu’s sons and grandsons fought for control of the dynasty.
Xian, which combined cities, towns, and villages into counties, were administered by a new class of public servant: mandarins. Mandarins were appointed by the state to rule over administrative districts and maintain law and order according to a written legal code stating rules and punishments for lawbreakers. Administrative divisions were also created on a much smaller scale. Agricultural communities were divided into groups of five to ten families who would monitor each other’s behavior and productivity.
Although many walls 63 The Great Wall of China, started in an earlier era, is most closely associated with the Ming Dynasty. Millions of peasants built the Ming wall, which separated China from the Mongols of the north. had been built over nearly two thousand years of Chinese history, the Ming wall is perhaps the best known and the most intact of all previous walls. It was built with the forced labor of millions of peasants and ultimately stood at a length of 13,000 miles (20,922 km). The Great Wall separated China from the Mongols to the north.
Ancient Chinese Dynasties by Cindy Jenson-Elliott