By Robert Schütze
Half I. ecu legislations - construction: 1. Union associations; 2. Union laws; three. Union competences; four. basic rights; half II. eu legislations - Enforcement: five. Direct influence; 6. (Legal) supremacy; 7. nationwide activities; eight. ecu activities; half III. ecu legislations - Substance: nine. inner industry: items; 10. inner industry: individuals; eleven. pageant legislation: cartels; 12. pageant legislations: abuse.
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Extra info for An introduction to European law
The founding Treaties did nonetheless breach the classic international law logic already in two ways. 8 When did the transformation of the European Parliament from an “assembly” of national parliamentarians into a directly elected Parliament take place? 9 And ever since the ﬁrst parliamentary elections in 1979, the European Parliament ceased to be composed of “representatives of the peoples of the States”. It constituted henceforth the representative of a European people. The Lisbon Treaty has – belatedly – recognized this dramatic constitutional change.
A) Composition and conﬁgurations Within the European Union, the Council is the institution of the Member States. Its intergovernmental character lies in its composition. ”59 Within the Council, each national minister thus represents the interests of “his” Member State. These interests may vary depending on the subject matter decided in the Council. 60 And for each conﬁguration, a different national minister will be representing “his” State. While there is thus – legally – but one single Council, there are – politically – ten different Councils.
See also “Declaration (No. 7) on Article 16(4) of the Treaty on European Union and Article 238(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union”, in particular (draft) Articles 1–3. The compromise was negotiated by the Member States’ foreign ministers in Ioannina (Greece) – from where it takes its name. The compromise was designed to smooth the transition from the Union of twelve to a Union of ﬁfteen Member States. Declaration (No. 7) on Article 16(4) (supra n. 78) contains a draft Council Decision.
An introduction to European law by Robert Schütze